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What is Taqwa?

Imam Ibn Juzayy al-Kalbi said in his dictionary of terms from the introduction to his tafsir:
Taqwa’s meaning is fear, clinging to obedience to Allah, and abandoning disobedience to Him. It is the sum of all good.”
And in his commentary, he said:

Concerning its benefits derived from the Qur’an, and they are thirteen:

1.    Guidance, because of His words:
“guidance for the muttaqin (the people of taqwa)”;
2.    Help, because of His words:
“Truly, Allah is with the people who have taqwa“;
3.    Close Friendship [with Allah], because of His words:
“Allah is the close friend of the muttaqin“;
4.    Love, because of His words:
“Truly Allah loves the muttaqin“;
5.    Covering over [of wrong actions], because of His words:
“If you have taqwa of Allah He will make for you a discrimination and He will cover over for you your wrong actions”;
6.    A way out from unhappiness, and provision from where one does not expect, because of His words: “Whoever has taqwa of Allah He will make a way out for him and provide him from where he does not expect”;
7.    Facilitation of affairs, because of His words:
“Whoever has taqwa of Allah He will make ease for him in his affair”;
8.    Full covering over of wrong actions and magnification of rewards, because of His words: “Whoever hastaqwa of Allah He will cover over his wrong actions and magnify a reward for him”;
9.    Acceptance of actions, because of His words:
“Allah only accepts from the people of taqwa“;
10. Success, because of His words:
“Have taqwa of Allah in order that you might succeed”;
11. Good news, because of His words:
“For them [i.e. people of taqwa] there is good news in this world and in the next”;
12. Entrance into the Garden, because of His words:
“Truly, there are for the people of taqwa with their Lord Gardens of bliss”;
13. Salvation from the Fire, because of His words:
“Then We will save the ones who had taqwa“.
Source: Al-Kalbi, Ibn Juzayy. Kitabu-t Tashil li ‘Ulumu-t Tanzil. Trans. Abdassamad Clarke. Unpublished.
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