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Arsh : The throne of Allah Ta’ala.
Banu Isra’eel : Literally means the children of Isra’eel. It refers to the progeny of Hadrat Ya’qub alayhis salaam.
Barakah : Literally means ”blessings”. It refers to the experiencing of abundance in things which are apparently insignificant or little,both in value and amount.
Burqah : A head covering worn by women.
Dua : Invocation to Allah, supplication, prayer, request, plea.
Durood : The sending of salutations upon Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam.
Eid ul-Ad’haa : The 10th of Zil Hijjah. Literally means ”the festival of sacrifice”. It is referred to as ad’haa because it is on this day thatanimals are sacrificed in the name of Allah and for His pleasure alone.
Eid ulFitr : The first day of Shawwaal. Literally means ”feast of breaking the Ramadaan fast”. It is referred to as fitrbecause it is on this day that the month-long Ramadaan fast comes to an end.
Fard : Literally means ”compulsory”. In Islam it refers to those acts and things which are compulsory on a Muslim. Abandoningor abstaining from a fard act is a major sin. Rejecting a fard act amounts to kufr.
Ghayr mahram : Refers to all those people with whom marriage is permissible. Based on this, it is also incumbent to observepurdah with all ghayr mahrams.
Haid : Monthly periods or menstruation experienced by a woman. Hoor : Large-eyed women of paradise promised tothe believers.
Ibaadah : Literally means ”worship”. In Islam it refers to all those acts with which one renders worship to Allah Ta’ala.
Iddah : In Islamic law it refers to the period of waiting during which a woman may not remarry after being widowed or divorced.
Iftaar : The time of opening one’s fast. This time commences immediately after sunset.
Ihraam : Two pieces of unstitched cloth which are donned by the person performing hajj or umrah.
Jumu’ah musjid : Refers to the musjid in which jumu’ah salaat is offered. It is also referred to as a jaame musjid. It is generally the mainmusjid in a town or city.
Kaafir : Literally means a ”disbeliever”. In Islam it refers to one who rejects Allah and does not believe in Muhammad sallallahu alayhiwa sallam as the final messenger of Allah.
Kaffarah : Literally means ”penance, atonement, expiation”. In Islamic law it refers to redemption from the omission of certain religiousduties by a material donation or a ritual act.
Kalaam-e-majeed : Refers to the Holy Quran.
Kalimah : Refers to the basic tenet of Islam, i.e. bearing witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and thatMuhammad is the messenger of Allah.
Kuffaar : Plural of kaafir.
Kufr : Refers to the state of disbelief.
Kurta : An Urdu word meaning ”shirt”. However, due to constant usage, it refers to the long flowing robe worn by Muslim men andwhich has come to be regarded as an Islamic dress.
Lungi : A loin cloth worn by men especially in eastern countries. A lungi is wrapped around the waist and extends up to the ankles.
Mahram : Refers to the person with whom marriage is not permissible and with whom strict purdah is not incumbent.
Makruh : That which is disliked or detestable but not forbidden.
Meelad : Literally means ”birth, birthday”. In this context it refers to the birthday celebrations held in respect for Rasulullahsallallahu alayhi wa sallam. In most cases these celebrations are innovations which are accompanied by many other evils.
Miswaak : A thin stick or twig which is used to clean the teeth.
Mt. Uhud : Name of a mountain outside Madinah. Muharram : The first month of the Islamic calendar.Mustahab : That which is preferable or desirable. Nafl : That which is optional.
Nifaas : Refers to the flowing of blood after child-birth.
Purdah : An Urdu word meaning ”seclusion”. It is an equivalent of the Arabic word ”hijaab”. Refers to the seclusion of women fromstrangers. There are different stages of purdah, the highest of which is that the woman should not come out of her home except for avalid Islamic reason.
Qada : Literally means ”carrying out or fulfilling”. In Islamic jurisprudence it refers to fulfilling or completing those duties that one mayhave missed due to some reason or the other.
Qiblah : The direction in which one faces when offering salaat. Qiyaamah : The day of resurrection.
Qurbaani : Literally means ”sacrifice”. In Islam it refers to the sacrificing of animals solely for the pleasure of Allah Ta’ala on the day ofeid ul-ad’haa and the two days following it.
Rajab : The seventh month of the Islamic calendar.
Rakaat : Literally means ”bending of the torso from an upright position”. In kitaabus salaat it refers to one unit of salaat whichcomprises of the standing, bowing, and prostrating postures.
Ramadaan : The ninth month of the Islamic calendar.
Sadaqah : Literally means ”charity”. This word is also used as an equivalent of zakaat.
Sadaqatul fitr : Refers to the charity that is given on or prior to the day of eid ulfitr. For further details, refer to the chapter onsadaqatul fitr.
Sajdah : The act of prostrating.
Salaam : Literally means ”peace”. In salaat it refers to the saying of “as salaamu alaykum wa rahmatullah” which denotes theend of the salaat. It is also a way of greeting among Muslims.
Satr : An Urdu word derived from the Arabic ”sitr”, which means ”cover, shield”. In the Urdu context it refers to that area of the bodywhich has to be covered. It is also referred to as the ”aurah”.
Sehri : Refers to the meal partaken before dawn by the person who intends fasting. For further details refer to the chapter on sehriand iftaar.
Sha’baan : The tenth month of the Islamic calendar. Shirk : Polytheism or ascribing partners to AllahTa’ala.
Subah saadiq : Literally means ”true dawn”. It refers to the time when whiteness (brightness) can be noticed on the breadth ofthe horizon. It is at this time that the time of fajr salaat commences.
Sub’haanallah : Means ”glory to Allah”.
Sufis : A term used to refer to mystics or saints. Such persons are also known as the auliyaa of Allah, i.e. the close friends ofAllah. These are the persons who have dedicated their entire lives in the ibaadah of Allah Ta’ala.
Surmah : Antimony. A black powdery substance that is applied to the eyes. It is sunnah to apply surmah.
Tasbeeh : Saying ”sub’haanallah”. A rosary that is used to glorify Allah Ta’ala is also called a tasbeeh.
Umrah : Commonly referred to as the lesser pilgrimage. It is similar to hajj with the exception that many of the rites of hajj are left outand that it could be performed throughout the year.
Wajib : Literally means ”obligatory’. In Islamic jurisprudence it refers to that act which has not been established by anabsolute proof. Leaving out a wajib without any valid reason makes one a faasiq and entails punishment.
Zikr : The remembrance of Allah Ta’ala.
Zil Hijjah : The last month of the Islamic calendar.
Zil Qa’dah : The eleventh month of the Islamic calendar.